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行為主体性(agency)、行為主体的自由

行為主体性とは、「ひとの主体的な意思に基づく多様な目的や価値の形成とそのもとでの自律的な選択」であり、行為主体的自由とは「ひとの主体的な意思に基づく多様な目的や価値の形成とそのもとでの自律的な選択に対して、外部的な妨害が存在しないことを意味する概念」である(鈴村&後藤, p.236)。

さて、福祉的自由は「ひとびとが自己の<機能>を選択する際の実質的機会の豊かさ、すなわち選択することが単に外部から妨害されないのみならず、本人の選択が実際に達成可能であることを保証する手段が存在することを意味する概念」である(鈴村&後藤、p.236)。
よく知られている比喩として、自らの意志による(例えば、政治的な)断食と、飢えの比較がある。前者の断食には福祉的自由が存在しており、後者の飢えには福祉的自由が欠如している。つまり、二つが違うことを福祉的自由という概念は区別することができる。
さて、そもそも(政治的な)断食という目的を選択することは行為主体的自由に基づいている。「好きな道を諦めて家族のために働く」と言う時、そして、「お前は好きなことをやれ」と言う時、そこでは行為主体的自由が語られている。
agencyで考えるとは、対象の人をagents of actionとして考え、patientとして考えないということである(Sen, 1999, p.137)。
センのデューイ講義(1985)では、well-beingをfunctioningsのベクトルというcapabilityで考えるという設定で、有名な飢えと断食の例が語られている。そのほかこの講義では、agency とwell-beingが分けて語れていて、そこでは「溺れた人を救う」話しが出てくる。川辺でサンドイッチを食べている時に、近くに溺れた人を発見した。この人を救うのはagency の達成として非常に重要である。しかし、well-beingの面からすると落ちるかもしれない。自分が犠牲になるかもしれないし、そもそもサンドイッチを美味しく食べるという行為を諦めているのだ。つまり、agencyとwell-beingは一緒にできないことになる。

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