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経済史の教科書

okazaki 岡崎哲二『コア・テキスト 経済史』新世社、(2005年)。コンパクトな良書である。

 よく知られているように、経済史は、歴史と経済学の間領域分野である。多くの経済史の教科書は、歴史書に倣って、通年史の形式をとってきた。これに対して、本書は経済学の観点からトピックが構成されている。この意味では、中級のミクロ・マクロ・計量を修めた学生にとって、良質の経済学のテキストということができるだろう。

 興味深い記述は、フェノアルテアの研究紹介に見られる。

『(フェノアルテアは)報酬インセンティブと苦痛インセンティブの性質の相違について考察しています。彼によると、苦痛は、それを避けようとするために、働く人々の努力水準を高めることには効果的です。苦痛への恐怖は人々を強く動機づけるわけです。しかし他方で、苦痛インセンティブは人々の注意深さを増大させる効果はあまりありません。(中略)そのため、注意深さが必要な作業には苦痛インセンティブではなく報酬インセンティブが用いられ、注意深さが必要とされない作業には苦痛インセンティブが用いられるというのが彼の基本的な考え方です。(p. 128)』

 岡崎は、これに関連して、ホルムストロムとミルグロムのマルチ・タスキングの論文を紹介している。

『ホルムストロムとミルグロムは、雇用主(プリンシパル)が代理人(エイジェント)に複数の仕事を行わせる(マルチ・タスキング)場合、強力なインセンティブを与えることは適当でないことを理論的に示しました。強力なインセンティブを与えると、一つの仕事に対する努力水準は上がりますが、観察されにくい他の仕事がおろそかにされるためです。(p. 129)』

改めて示唆に富む指摘である。

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