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『世紀の売却』

4794806590 FTのeditorであるクライスティア・フリーランドの『世紀の売却』を読んだ。五点、感想を書く。

 第一に、1990年代のロシアの政治経済動向を知るのにおそらく最良の書の一つであろう。そして、新聞記者の手法でこのようなテーマを扱うためには日本語版で559頁(6000円)というような厚みが必要なことをあらためて認識させてくれる。日本語オリジナルの書物でこれと匹敵するボリュームは私の乏しい知識では、『通貨烈々』ぐらいだろうか。新聞記者が書いた本でボリュームの無い本はどうしても読みがいに欠けるという「rule of thumb」が成り立つかもしれない。

 第二に、制度(institution)が変更され弱体化する時に、どのような経済利権が発生するかを細やかに明らかにしてくれる。これは政体を含めて大規模な変革がなされたロシアばかりではなく、制度が一般に弱いとされる多くの発展途上国についても示唆を与える。例えば、変革期において儲かるのは製造業ではなく、天然資源産業であり、国際価格と国内価格の鞘取りを行う「商業」である。

 第三に、制度の変革が終息すると、新しい経営者層が要請されるということを本書は展望している。第14章でオリガルヒのミハイル・フリードマンが言うように、オリガルヒの人間はプロの経営者ではない。ある事業を継続的に成功させようとすれば、その事業についての経験と専門性をもったプロが必要となる。そして、この専門家の導入に際しては、限定的には制度は安定化していく必要に迫られるということも示唆される。

 第四に、true believerとしての若手改革派の役割を鮮やかに描き出している。本書のとる基本的なポジションは改革は外からではなく内から行われ、その際の一つの原動力は若手改革派の資本主義に対する「狂信」であったことである。これは他の国の「構造改革」の政治過程にも通ずるであろう。ある国では、若手改革派はより既存の資産家に近く、より穏健で地についた改革が行われたかもしれない。とはいえ、その「狂信性」には共通したものがある。

 第五に、曖昧に書かれた法律にはその理由があるという著者の発見には一般的に傾聴すべきものがある。pp.270-271に極めて明快に書かれている。この部分を読むだけでも、この本を開く価値があると言えるだろう。

 まずは以上。

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