« 今日は何をしたっけ | Main | ハッピー!ハッピー! »

ジェフリー・サックス本、読了

 ジェフリー・サックス本、読了。15~18章。

p. 189 For too long, too much economic thinking has been directed at the wrong question --- how to make the poor countries into textbook models of good governance or efficient market economies. Too little has been done to identify the specific, proven low-cost interventions that can make a difference in living standards and economic growth.

これは貧困削減の資金源について、

p. 295 When the same calculation is made for middle-income countries, the situation is completely chaged. Countries such as Brazil, Chile, or Mexico are able to provide the complete package of services out of domestic resources.

これは、米国政府が援助額に組み込めと論じている「信じがたい」意見について、

p.303 The U.S. government also tried to argue, incredibly, that remittances of foreign workers in the United States back to their home country should somehow count as a form of aid. This is ridiculous. The remittances are the returns for work. They are not more a form of aid than are the remittances of U.S. profits from Mexico a form of aid from Mexico to the United States.

これは、サックス氏がどこに援助の資金源を探せばよいかと論じた点について、

p.304 (T)he richest of the rich in the United States should be asked to pay their fair share to help the poorest of the poor in the world.

次に16章、まずは、長文だがサックス氏が議論する「開発の神話」について、

Everything up to this point is fine and good, except for one matter: it ignores the human factor. Take the case of Africa. Africa needs around $30 billion per year in aid in order to escape from poverty. But if we actually gave that aid, where would it go? Right down the drain if the past is any guide. Sad to say, Africa's education levels are so low that even programs that work elsewhere would fail in Africa. Africa is corrupt and riddled with authoritarianism. It lacks modern values and the institutions of a free market economy needed to achieve succss. In fact, Africa's morals are so broken down than it is no surprise AIDS has run out of control. And here is the bleakest truth: Suppose that our aid saved Africa's children. What then? There would be a population explosion, and a lot more hungry adults. We would have sloved nothing.
  If your head was just nodding yes, please read this chapter with special care. ...

アフリカの統治(governance)と経済発展との因果関係(causality)について、

p.312 Africa's governance is poor because Africa is poor.

道徳と経済発展について事例は日本だった、

p.315 Virtually every society that was once poor has been castigated for being lazy and unworthy until its citizens became rich, at which point their new wealth was "explained" by their industriousness. Japan is a case a point, a society that was viewed as doomed to poverty when foreigners first arrived in the 1870s. ...

出生率と人口動態についてはp.324-326に書いてある。抜書きは省略。

では、17章(『なぜ我々は援助をしなければならないか』)。まずは、極貧と国家安全保障との関係について、

p.331 Hard evidence has established strong linkages between extreme poverty abroad and the threats to national security.

米国CIAのState Failure Task Forceによるstate failure(国家破綻)についての研究の紹介はp.332-333。幼児死亡率、経済の開放性、民主主義の三つが国家破綻と逆相関になっていると論じている。

本章のまとめとして、

p.345 (Political leaders) will have to explain why the safety of global society, the value of their country's solemn word, the lives of millions of impoverished children, and the meaning and moral worth of our civilization all depend on what they are requesting.

では18章。思想的な動機を説明している。啓蒙主義を活用して、挙げている思想家の名前は、Thomas Jefferson, John Locke, David Hume, Adam Smith, Immanuel Kant, Sir Francis Bacon, and Marie-Jean-Antoine Condorcetです。象徴的な言葉として、p.358の小見出しに書かれた「Toward an Enlightened Globalization」という文句かな。

さて、このような啓蒙主義的な事業が過去にあったとして三つ挙げている。The End of Slavery, The end of Colonialism, and The Civil Rights and Antiapartheid Movementsである。

p.364 The movements against slavery, colonialism, and racism share some basic features. They looked quixotic, perhaps even hopeless at the start, as calls to the richest and most powerful in the world to extend justice for the poorest and most helpless. ...

ちなみに上の文のquixoticという言葉は、Don Quijote(ドン・キホーテ)から来ていて「キホーテ的」すなわち「理想を求めすぎる、空想的な」という意味です。

以上、速読でしたが、包括的な本でなかなか面白かったですね。大規模な援助を自己利益(self-interest)からではなく啓蒙主義的な道徳(moral)に基づいて求めるところが潔いです。

|

« 今日は何をしたっけ | Main | ハッピー!ハッピー! »

書籍・雑誌」カテゴリの記事

Comments

Post a comment



(Not displayed with comment.)




TrackBack

TrackBack URL for this entry:
http://app.cocolog-nifty.com/t/trackback/23398/3506263

Listed below are links to weblogs that reference ジェフリー・サックス本、読了:

« 今日は何をしたっけ | Main | ハッピー!ハッピー! »