p.163 There was thus no surplus army of workers ready to join the nonstate sector, as in China's town and village enterprises or its free-trade zones.
pp.168-169 One rule of thumb among growth economists holds that the income gap between a rich and poor economy will tend to narrow by about 2 percent per year if all other things (geography, policy, and the like) are roughly the same.
p.174 As recounted vividly in Mike Davis's stunning book Late Victorian Holocausts, India fell prey to repeated monsoon failures, which were probably linked to El Nino-Southern Oscillations (ENSO) climate fluctuations in the western Pacific.
p. 175 (Sen's insight is sometimes carried too far, however, with the claim that democracies never have famines. In the extreme climatic and demographic conditions of Africa, where highly vulnerable populations rely on rain-fed agriculture in arid regions, draoughts can cause famines even in democracies.)
p. 179 (F)or more than a generation India had been turning out high-quality entrepreneurs and engineers from the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), a collection of seven world-class, loosely affliated campuses around the country.
p. 179 The port facilities were crowded, poorly managed, and hard to access. Roads were clogged and riddled with chassis-breaking potholes. But the IT revolution meant that exports of information, by way of satellite linkups in the mid-1990s and fiber optic cables a few years later, could bypass the logjams on the roads and ports.
p.184 My studies with Nirupam Bajpai had found that the rate of urbanization at the state level was the strongest predictor of the relative growth rates among the Indian states, with the most urbanized states, as of 1981, the places where growth was the most rapid.
p.193 Relevant information on population densities, roads, motor vehicles, access to electricity and telecommunications, and the like was certainly available from published data. But without the benefit of visiting Africa's rural communities, I would not have known what to look for in the data, or what the data really meant.
p.197 Malaria to this day can stop a good investment project in its tracks, whether a new mine, farm region, or tourist site.
p.198 In highly malarious regions, malaria impedes the demographic transition and the investment in human capital. When children die in large numbers, parents overcompensate and have more children, with devastating results.
p.198 Malaria had coevolved with humans in Africa, and the result was a special intensity of transmission unequaled in any other part of the world.